My book Sod Ha’ibur reached the conclusion that the Hebrew Calendar as we use it today was used essentially the same way by Rabban Gamliel. But as I was about to go to print in summer of 2014 I made 2 absolutely amazing new discoveries.

  • GUcHADZaT — the 19 year distribution table for 12 and 13 month Lunar Years was in use in Bavel 490 BCE to 312 BCE.
    • This was known from the Parker & Dubberstein studies of the Clay Tablets found in Iraq. They showed the series 3-6-8-11-14-17-19 which is the series of GUcHADZaT.
    • 19 possible series and the Babylonians chose the same one we use to this day.
    • It is likely they took it from the Jews who they held captive at this time.
  • Shabbat — July 23, 791 BCE (Julian)*, zero hours, zero chalakim!                                                                    The Hebrew Calendar, essentially as we know it today, began.
    • I searched a database of the Moladot from Molad of Tohu through present day and found only the 3 matches seen in the chart below.
    • The first is too early the last is too late but 791 BCE is consistent with the ancient calendar knowledge as historians have come to realize.
    • July 16, 791 BCE (Gregorian)